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Define backline.
Backline extends from the end of the withers to the tail. The word "topline" is often used when what we are really referring to is the backline.
True or False: The anticlinal vertebra is the longest spinous process in the vertebral column.
False. It's the shortest.
True or False: Based on the technically correct definition of topline, it is impossible for a dog to have a straight or level topline.
True. Technically speaking, the definition of topline is the outline extending from the back of the ears to the set on of the tail.
In what area of the vertebral column is a dip in a dog's back most likely to show up?
In the area of the anticlinal vertebra, which is one of the shortest spinous processes in the spinal column.
Which type of neck is most anatomically capable of handling the pull of the shoulder blade muscles?
An arched neck.
True or False: A dog with a short neck tends to carry its head higher when moving.
False. They carry it lower.
True or False: Forechest amount should be the same in all breeds.
True or False: In many breeds, steep shoulders correlate with an increased amount of forechest.
True of False: Different breeds have different degrees of shoulder angulation, which we are calling the angle made between the shoulder blade and the upper arm.
True or False: When evaluating shoulder angulation it doesn't matter if the dog is in a stacked position or not.
False. The dog must be in the stacked position with the front legs perpendicular to the ground.
True or False: In some breeds, dogs with necks that are too short may also have straight, set far forward shoulders.
True or False: Some writers feel that shoulder angulation falls into 3 categories: 90 degrees, 120 degrees and 130 degrees depending on the breed.
True or False: Hindquarter angulation is the same in all breeds.
False. Hindquarter angles vary by breed.
Which 2 long bones form the stifle joint?
The upper thigh (femur) and lower thigh (tibia).
Which two bones are involved in shoulder angulation?
The shoulder blade (scapula) and the upper arm (humerus).
True or False: Some breeders may lack an understanding of genetic principles that influence shoulder assembly.
When determining the angle of the shoulder blade which part of the blade is used in making the measurement: the left edge, the raised ridge (spine) in the center of the blade, or the right edge?
The raised ridge (spine) going down the center of the blade.
What parts of the shoulder blade and upper arm are used in Method #1 to estimate shoulder angulation?
Method #1 measures the angle made between a line going from the top of the shoulder blade to the point of the shoulder and a line from the point of the shoulder to the tip of the elbow.
What part of the shoulder blade and upper arm are used in Method #2 to estimate shoulder angulation?
Method #2 measures the angle between a line going along the spine of the shoulder blade to the shoulder joint and a line along the length of the upper arm. This is more accurate than Method #1.
What are 3 purposes that the tail serves?
The tail (1)helps maintain or recover balance, (2) assists in forward movement and jumping, and (3) reflects temperament.
True or False: Front and rear angles should match in all breeds.
False. Matching angles typify some endurance breeds but some breeds built for speed do not have matching angles.
How does temperament affect a dog's anatomy and movement?
Temperament influences energy output, style, reach and drive and leg lift.
True or False: Knowing how to prioritize virtues and faults in each breed is necessary for judging and breeding.
True. Knowing how to prioritize features in each breed is critical to the breeding and judging process.